Wednesday, 23 July 2014

Are you following the guidelines?

What has really thrilled me over the passed couple years is the opportunity to judge cider in a competition setting. I get to judge along side some real industry heavy weights, and find I am always learning something new. I have already been to two awards this year, and will be judging up at the Sydney Beer and Cider Show in September. Judging cider is not an easy task when completely new to the concept. You're looking for subtle differences in a cider which is part of a huge class that sometimes almost look identical to each other. It's easy to just try and compare cider to wine. But with cider, you're analysing malic acid, not tartaric and playing with sometimes ghastly amounts of sugar, be it real or fake. It's closely analysing textures, acidity, balance, carbonation, fruit intensity and most importantly style. I am a qualified Winemaker and have had sensory classes rammed down my throat at University. Without sounding too bigheaded, I am indeed trained in sensory evaluation, fault detections etc. This is perhaps why my reviews go so 'in-depth' by the fact I am picking up such tiny subtleties in a cider, which most punters would oversee or not care about. I have really honed in my skill on judging cider and am confident in my ability. So why am I saying this? There is a point I assure you. Let me explain:

As a producer, I believe you have every right to get your cider judged along side industry peers. It's great for the industry, and keeps the competitive juices flowing. It can give you a clear indication of where you are at in terms of style and quality, and can be a bit of fun when you win a medal. It can also help you with feedback to maybe tweak or sharpen up that next batch you're about to begin. What gets scrupulously worked on in the background to these shows is the determination of clear, set boundaries and rules which outline a class. What is a class? For example:

Class 1: Contemporary Dry
Class 2: Contemporary Medium
Class 3: Contemporary Sweet
Class 4: Traditional Dry
Class 5: Traditional Medium
Class 6: Traditional Sweet     

Within these classes, a sugar reading (gravity or residual sugar) is one of the determining factors to which category the cider goes into. This is the case for both apple and pear/perry cider. Pretty clear and concise if you think about it. Here's an example for cider used in shows across Australia:


Dry: SG up to 1005
Medium: SG between 1005 and 1012
Sweet: SG 1012 and above

Residual Sugar - g/L

Dry: less than 9 g/L
Medium: 9 g/L - 40g/L
Sweet: Above 40 g/L

So these parameters/methods do change between shows, but very minutely. It is up to the discretion of the producer to enter into the right class when there is a obvious overlap or closeness in sugar parameters for that show. One could argue there needs to be Australian standardised sugar levels and units to determine classes in shows. Yes perhaps, but there really is not a huge difference.

Along with sugar level, Australian cider also currently has two distinct and recognised styles which also determines class:

Contemporary and Traditional. Here are the guidelines taken from the Melbourne Fine Food Awards (composed by Max Allen).

Contemporary Cider or Perry: made in a style that is in line with the broad contemporary Australian market; more likely to be lighter, cleaner and crisper to taste, with primary fruit flavours; more likely to be made from dessert apple or pear varieties, but can be made from bittersweet/traditional varieties; can be either sparkling or still. 

Traditional Cider or Perry: made in a style that is more in line with the cider and perry traditions of Europe; likely to be fuller, more chewy or tannic to taste, with secondary fruit flavours and ferment/maturation-derived characters (e.g. obvious influence of oak and/or oxidative handling); more likely to be made from bittersweet/traditional apple or pear varieties, but can also be made from dessert varieties; can be either sparkling or still

Bottle-fermented Cider or Perry: made in a style that is likely to show bottle-fermentation or bottle-condition derived characters such as yeastiness and persistent carbonation from methode champenoise production or natural residual sugar and soft, moderate carbonation from keeving.

Again, pretty clear and concise and bang on the money. It's fairly obvious where a producers cider would sit in terms of style. So what's my point? My point is the amount of ciders entered into wrong classes through means of being overly sweet in a dry class, or contemporary in a traditional class for example, is worrying. I am worried there are producers who don't know their product well enough. Could it be cider being entered in on behalf of a marketing sector -  enter large corporate ciders here.....? Having a contemporary cider which is back sweetened with Chinese concentrate entered into a traditional class, shows a complete lack of maturity and understanding of cider. It's these clueless producers who are in it for the $$$$, not the so called passion. If you can't read a set of thorough guidelines, printed in black and white and devised by industry professionals, then don't enter. Plain and simple. A cider made with desserts can be both contemporary and traditional, yes. But it's your methods of production which ultimately determine style. Same goes with cider apples. You can have both contemporary and traditional. Just because your cider is jam packed full of cider apples, doesn't instantly make it traditional in an Australian sense. Also, do some producers seriously think a highly processed, conc sweetened and filtered dessert cider is traditional? ummmm........  

We are lucky that a large per cent do get it right. Thank you to all those wonderful and coherent producers! But there's always some complete anomalies/aberrations which make you think where they drunk when they entered? Tasting sweet ciders in a dry class just mystifies me - it's like entering a moscato into a dry Riesling class in wine judging. The dry and sweet classes are the biggest culprits, with almost laughable outliers in some cases. We do judge them accordingly, but do they deserve a second chance? The contemporary medium apple cider class is by far the most populated class in every show. It usually accounts for over 60 per cent of the judging, and seems to be the most competitive and fairly accurate class. Perry is a different kettle of fish. I do hold some leniency with perry/pear cider due to the unfermentable sorbitol. This can show differences in perceived sweetness against analytical sweetness, potentially causing confusion. But it always helps to get a second opinion.    

I know as a judge, show organisers are doing everything they can to make these shows worthy, meaningful and creditable. Guidelines are tight, and are in black and white. But it's up to the rogue producers to get their heads around what they are actually entering, and enter correctly. As mentioned above, it's not too hard to follow the rules. If that means testing your ciders sugar at a lab before entering or getting advice on your style, then I recommend you do. If you're ever in doubt, contact the show organisers and they can point you in the right direction. I thank each and every producer for entering into shows and for giving it a go - don't get me wrong! Without you, these shows wouldn't exist. I want these competitions to have credit and be worth something to a producer. Let's all get on the same page and do what's right. But from a judges point of view, I want to see these silly mistakes abolished and taken seriously.   


Tuesday, 22 July 2014

Christian Drouin - Demi Sec

Nothing makes me happier in this big wide world of cider than a decent French cidre. The more murky, funky, sweaty and rustic the better in my eyes. The many Frenchies I’ve drank seem to encapsulate the orchard and fruit so effortlessly in the bottle that when you smell the cider, you feel like you’re actually there. The powerful aromas and epic flavours are so impressive and unmatched. It really makes you realise why you love this noble little drink so much. But it also makes you wonder why they are vanishing off Aussie bottle shop shelves like a fart in the wind? Explain that.   
When I got my hands on the Christian Drouin – demi sec, I was like a little kid on Christmas morning. The Christian Drouin brand which dates back to 1960, is based at their Coeur de Lion Estate, Coudray-Rabut in the Pays de Auge. Like many other producers scattered throughout Normandy, Christian Drouin make and specialise in the production of Calvados. Made from mostly bitter apples, the demi sec is the sweeter of their cidres with a lower alcohol of 3 per cent. Being labelled ‘not pasteurised’ and ‘not filtered’ suggests the cidre was keeved to give its natural sweetness and carbonation.

On opening, the cork blew off like a hand grenade. I was suspecting a possible refermentation here, as the carbonation in the glass was ferocious with a beer like heady foam. We have to remember this cidre has travelled half way across the world in hot conditions, probably stored in a hot warehouse and then sent to me. So I can see there may have been an issue. The bottle was super thick, heavy and chunky too, possibly as a safety precaution? Christian Drouin do state that their cidres are "an alive product”. The colour was a beautiful cloudy candied orange.

The nose was utterly rich and layered. Thick and fresh like the cidre was made the day before. The pure French apple nose was charmingly attractive and quite addictive with tonnes of orange blossom and apple skin leading the way. This was a nose on steroids, with huge amounts of persistence and clarity. The secondary characters where not so evident here, just pure primary fruit.
On tasting, the sweetness was somewhat overpowering to begin with. This was definitely a sugar bomb. After some adjusting, it was hard to go past the luscious, thick and moreish flavours. What I love about French cidre and which was seen in this cidre, are the powdery/grainy tannins which coat the mouth and add a beautiful bittery texture (and we all know I’m a texture lover in cider).The other thing which I did enjoy was the sweetness tasting real and not fake. It was a sweetness which didn’t make you feel sick. The length of this cidre felt endless, with lovely flavours of orange marmalade and bruised apple. The foam added a fluffy weight.

Although this cidre was on the sweet side, its charm and length won it for me. It was beautiful and everything I expected. Yes it was cloudy and a little lumpy from some residual yeasts, but that’s called FLAVOUR! This is the true definition of orchard to bottle. This type of cidre would work well with a spiced pear paste and cracker platter on a balmy summer’s afternoon. That’s my idea of food matching.
Producer: Christian Drouin
Country: France (Coudray-Rabut, Normandy)
Alcohol: 3.0%

Rating: 17 out of 20


Sunday, 1 June 2014

Apple case study: Somerset Redstreak

Somerset Redstreak apple
One apple which has fascinated me for quite some time is the bittersweet cider apple - Somerset Redstreak. The apple itself originated in the county of Somerset England, and is famously known to produce a quite mild cider with soft tannins, perfectly suited to medium sweetness. The apple ripens early in the grand scheme of apple growing and produces solid crops of attractive green-yellow coloured with red striped fruit. It's best known to be blended with sharper varieties to form far more complex ciders and is one of the main commercial varieties planted in the UK.   

Mostly found in the UK, Somerset Redstreak is slowly making its way to Australia with producers like Daylesford Cider, Lost Pippin and Lobo Cider already having exclusive access to it. Around two years ago, there was some debate whether the apple was actually 'true' here in Australia. Hence, I never planted them in my orchard. But I have been assured recently that the apple is in actual fact the real deal. So I think I will be ordering some bare rooted SR's this year!  

But to highlight this handy little cider apple, I have sourced two ciders - one from Herefordshire and one from Somerset. The idea being to taste through them to really get an understanding of how this cider apple operates. The cider from Somerset is a 100 per cent single varietal made by Perry's, and the second is a blend of Somerset Redstreak and Kingston Black from Herefordshire producer Once Upon A Tree. Off the top of my head, I don't think there are any 100 per cent Somerset Redstreak ciders made in Australia? Please correct me if I am wrong. But this was a tasting which I was very much looking forward to!  

Perry's Cider - Somerset Redstreak
Perry's has been producing 100 per cent apple juice ciders since 1920 in Dowlish Lake, Somerset. Today, their natural approach to making quality craft cider is the backbone which drives this company. The Somerset Redstreak cider is part of their 'single varietal' range with the fruit sourced from their Knowle St Giles Orchard. 

The colour mimics burnt caramel, filtered clear and with a light carbonation on pouring. The nose offers up hints of lifted Christmas cake spice, dusty old oak and floral apple. There is this sweet/sour combination which makes the nose seem very luscious and rich. However, the aromas ensure the cider maintains a freshness which is very inviting. Quite a clean nose, which is simple yet full of varietal character and complexity.

On tasting, what immediately impressed was the balance of grainy tannins and rounded medium sweetness. This is what I expected to see. On top of that, rich apple flavours added this addictive moreish and candied flavour. I described it as 'thick' in my notes. There was just a hint of back palate bitterness with good acidity adding structure. The flavour does die off towards the end, but really a nice example of a single varietal Somerset Redstreak. 

In the end, this cider was a simple, fresh and clean example. Perhaps lacked the punch which you would expect from a single varietal, but I enjoyed its soft characters, and sweet charm. All was in balance too. Very drinkable.

Producer: Perry's Cider
Country: England (Dowlish Wake, Somerset)
Alcohol: 6.0%

Once Upon A Tree - Kingston Redstreak
Once Upon A Tree was formed in 2008 in Herefordshire by Ann and Norman Stainer and Hannah and Simon Day. Simon Day is a Winemaker turned Cidermaker (sounds like someone else I know....) and produces all the ciders at their 22 acres Dragon Orchard situated in Putley near Marcle Ridge, Herefordshire. This is a cider I just had to get and taste! This blend is 85 per cent Kingston Black, and 15 per cent Somerset Redstreak.

The colour was a beautiful deep tawny which was filtered clear. This cider is made as a still, therefore no carbonation was seen. The nose offered up super rich and luscious floral apple, candy apple, and hints of spice with complimentary dusty oak and orange blossom characters. Can't believe how fresh this is, like it was made yesterday! Some secondary leathery, old barnyard notes added a beautiful depth. So crisp and clean for 2010. Sensational nose. 

The palate was full and packed with body and weight. There was a tonne of substance here. The still nature did not make this thin or lifeless. A medium sweetness added weight, with older oak and candy apple flavours. There was a tiny lick of tannin, but balanced well with the acidity and sweetness. What impressed was the looooooong lingering length. Beautifully moreish and so enjoyable. A tiny hint of VA just added some lift too. 

This was a very broad cider, with tonnes of flavour and depth. You can see this is a good blend of bittersharp KB's and bittersweet SR's. They compliment each other well. Beautiful cider, and really highlights the varietals in the blend well. Thoroughly enjoyable. 

Producer: Once Upon A Tree Ltd
Country: England (Putley, Herefordshire)
Alcohol: 7.5%

So there we go. Two examples of this apple from two great producers and both were a pleasure to drink. The Somerset Redstreak is a very handy apple to have adding softness with what I find a distinctive barnyardy apple note. I love this characters and it works very well in cider. It works well as a single, but I think it suited better to a blend. It just needs a helping hand to broaden its appeal with some bigger, bolder flavours of other varieties. I just cant wait to get a few trees in the ground! 


2014 Adelaide Cider Competition

It's that time of year again when cider competitions start up ramping up. It's a great excuse for cider producers to enter their precious produce and get it reviewed and judged against a set of stylistic guidelines. As the 2014 Melbourne Fine Food Awards has been run and won, it's now time to turn our attention to the inaugural 2014 Royal Adelaide Show Cider Competition. I am absolutely delighted to announce I will be judging at this event! I get to judge in my home state, so happy! So to all producers, please, please, please enter this event. You can even enter your kegged cider. It has been organised by some industry greats, and has a great format. Please see the media release issued by the RA&HS below. 


Cider producers from around Australia are being encouraged to enter the new Royal Adelaide Show Cider Competition. Held in conjunction with the popular Royal Adelaide Beer Awards, the competition is designed to recognise Australia’s burgeoning cider industry.  According to Roy Morgan Research, almost 1 in 10 adult Australians drank cider in an average four-week period in 2013, up from 1 in 50 in 2008.
The competition is open to producers of traditional and contemporary ciders in either dry, medium or sweet styles, with bottles, kegs and cans all accepted.  
Major awards will be granted to the Champion Cider, Champion Perry and Champion South Australian Exhibit. 

Entries close on Friday, June 6, at 5pm – visit the ‘Competitions’ tab on for details.

Judging will take place together with the Royal Adelaide Beer Awards from July 14 to 16.
An Awards Presentation, supported by Brand South Australia will be held at a cocktail function on July 18 at The Gallery on Waymouth, Waymouth Street, Adelaide.
For more information, contact Chalien Bayliss on 0419 185 306